Chapter 4: Linear Kinetics

  • Explain Newton's three laws of motion
  • Apply Newton's second law of motion to determine the acceleration of an object if the forces acting on the object are known
  • Apply Newton's second law of motion to determine the net force acting on an object if the acceleration of the object is known
  • Define impulse
  • Define momentum
  • Explain the relationship between impulse and momentum
  • Describe the relationship between mass and weight

Isaac Newton (1642-1727)

Newton's Laws of Motion

Football against Eli Herring and Usain Bolt
Eli: 157 kg at 8.0 m/s
Usain: 94 kg at 12.35 m/s

Conservation of Momentum

Linear Kinetics: Explaining the Causes of Linear Motion


Money experiment (penny mass=2.5g, nickel=5.0g)

Elastic collisions: maua + mbub= mava + mbvb

Elestic versus inelastic collisions

Coefficient of Restitution

Inelastic collisions: maua + mbub= mava + mb [e(ua - ub) + va]

Force affects motion

Measuring Ground Reaction Forces

Ground Reaction Forces in Running

How Do Weight and Inertia affect preferred movement?
Lunar Locomotion
Alter-g Treadmill



Buildup of velocity in the shot put (Download Video)


When Force is Changing: Impulse = Favg Δ t
How do we calculate impulse?

Soccer Kick Example (video)

Long Jump Example

How does this work in a spreadsheet?

Summary of Newton's Laws
First law: Inertia (resistance to a change in motion)
Second law: F=ma
Third law: Action-reaction


G=6.67300 x 10-11m/kg/s2
Mass of earth = 5.9742 × 1024 kg
Radius of earth = 6378.1 km


F=ma or W=mg

How much does an astronaut weigh?

  1. Can a body be moving if no external forces are acting upon it?
  2. Can a body change its direction of motion if no external forces act on it?
  3. Can a body be moving with constant velocity if external forces are acting on it?
  4. If you pull on a tug of war rope with a force of 50 lb, how much force does the rope exert on you?