Chapter 11: Muscle Mechanics
- Describe the effect of fiber direction, cross-sectional area, and fiber length on muscle force
- Distinguish between the various types of muscle fiber for endurance and speed
- Describe the three types of muscle activations
- Calculate stress and strain for muscles
What is strength (Bench Press)?
T = F⊥d
Factors affecting force production
- Cross-sectional Area
- Muscle Design
Figure 2a: Fusiform fiber arrangement (Example-Biceps brachii), 2b: Unipennate fiber arrangement (Example-Extensor digitorum longus of the hand), 2c: Bipennate fiber arrangement (Example-Rectus femoris).
- Myofibril Organization
- Fiber Length
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- Contraction Velocity
- Fiber Type
- (1) slow twitch fatigue resistant (I), (2) fast twitch fatigue resistant (IIa), (3) faster twitch fatigue resistant (IIx), and (4) fastest twitch fast fatigue (IIb).
Tendons and Ligaments
- 70% water
- 25% collagen
- 5% elastin
- Traces of inorganic components